Geology : Solar System. The Earth : its origin, age and internal
constitution. Volcanoes-types, distribution geological effects and products.
Earthquakes-intensity, magnitude, distribution, causes and effects. Elementary
ideas about isostasy, geosynclines, mountain building, continental drift, sea
floor spreading and plate
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Geomorphology : Basic concepts. External and internal processes. Rock
weathering. Cycle of erosion. Fluvial landforms and drainage patterns. Landforms
of aeolian, marine, glacial and Karst landscapes. Elements of Remote Sensing.
and field Geology : Primary and secondary structures. Dip and strike of
beds. Unconformities. Study of folds, joints, faults, foliation and lineations.
Overthrusts and nappe structures. Stages of rock deformation. Construction of
block diagrams. Stereographic and equal-area nets. Solutions of simple problems
by stereographic net.
and their interpretation. Use of clinometer compass in the field Measurements of
bed, foliation, folds joints, faults and lineations in the field. Principles of
geological mapping. Effects of topography on outcrops. Drawing of sections.
Crystallography : Elements of crystal structure. Laws of crystallography,
Symmetry elements of normal classes of seven crystal systems.
interaction of light and crystalline matter. Petrological microscope and
accessories. Construction and use of Nicole prism. Pleochroism, double
refraction, extinction angle, birefringence and twinning in crystals, Isotropic,
uniaxial and biaxial minerals.
: Physical, chemical and optical properties of the following common rock
forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, garnet,
chlorite, carbonates, aluminosilicates. Structure of silicates and crystal
chemistry of minerals. Gemstones.
(c) Economic Geology :Ore,
ore mineral and gangue. Classification of ore deposits. Important processes of
their formation. Occurrence, origin and distribution in India of the ores of
aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, manganese and radioactive
elements. Deposits of minerals use as abrasives, refractories and in ceramics,
deposits of coal and petroleum. Elements of prospecting for mineral deposits.
Petrology :Origin of magma and formation of igneous rocks. Bowens reaction
principle. Crystallisation of binary systems. Classification of igneous rocks.
Textures and structures of igneous rocks. Composition, origin and mode of
occurrence of granite, syenite, diorite, mafic and ultramafic groups,
anorthosites and alkaline rocks.
Sedimentary Petrology : Sedimentary process and products. Classification of
sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary structures. Residual deposits - their mode of
formation, chacteristics and types, Clastic deposits- their classification,
mineral composition and texture. Elementary ideas about the origin and
characteristics of quartz arenites, arkoses and graywackes. Siliceous and
calcareous deposits of chemical and organic origin.
Metamorphic Petrology :Types and factors of metamorphism. Zones, grades and
facies of metamorphism. Regional and contact metamorphism. Textures and
structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous,
calcareous and basic rocks. Metasomatism.
Paleontology :Habits and habitats of animals. Fossils and fossilization.
Modes of preservation. Application of fossils, Study of morphology and
geological history of Foraminiferida, Brachipoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda,
Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Echinoidea and Anthozoa.
Siwalik Group. A brief study of Gondwana flora.
Stratigraphy and Geology of India :Fundamental laws of stratigraphy.
Stratigraphic classification lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and
chronostratigraphic. Geological time scale.
divisions and outline of stratigraphy of India. Brief study of Dharwar, Vindhyan
and Gondwana Supergroups and Siwalik Group with reference to their major
subdivisions, lithology, fossils, areal distribution and economic importance.
(i) General Geology
The Solar System, meteorities,
origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes-
causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake
belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismongraphs. Island arcs,
deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and
mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and
epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote
Basic concepts of geomorphology.
Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles
and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and
lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil
engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian
Aerial photographs and their
interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electronmagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting
satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites
data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic
Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.
(iii) Structural geology
Priniples of geologic mapping and
map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain
relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in
deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions.
Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds,
foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed
deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.
Introduction to petrofabrics.
Species- definition and
nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils.
Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation,
petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology,
geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita,
Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea,
Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and
Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology
Classification of stratigraphic
sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and
magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and
classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic
distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to
fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems-
Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and
Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous
activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework
of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi) Hydrogeology and
Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water.
Movement of subsruface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic
conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of
aquifers. Water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt
water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for
groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater.
Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations
for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate
reaction. Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant
Classification of crystals into
systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic
notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal
defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.
Petrological microscope and
accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism,
extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in
Physical and chemical characters
of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of
silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the
carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous ad Metamorphic
Generation and crystallisation of
magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and
diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic
differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and
structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite,
diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline
rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
Types and agents of
metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and
contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of
metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks.
Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation,
migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
Sedimentary rocks: Processes of
formation. diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic and
non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional
environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their
significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of
(iv) Economic Geology
Ore, ore minerals and gangue,
tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals
deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures.
Metallogenic epochs and provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of
aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium
and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India.
National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources.
Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology
prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of
sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Mehtods of exploration and mining
metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral
beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and
Cosmic abundance of elements.
Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and compostion of earth and
distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of
chemical bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary
landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation.
Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and
radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and
fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment
protection-legislative measures in India.