Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications
Circuit componets; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods : nodal
analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient
analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant
circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase
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A D V E R T I S E M E N T
Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and
zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory :
design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation : Input formats;
methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.
Signals & Systems
Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI
systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems
based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform,
Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of
signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.
Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions,
reflaction and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line : Distributed
parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith
chart. Waveguides : parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and
cylindrical wave guides, resonators. Planar transmission lines; stripline,
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode,
BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing
and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers : single and
multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of
amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters;
sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP
configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC
families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic
circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits :
latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers,
multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in
rotating machines. DC machines : charateristics and performance analysis;
starting and speed control of motors.
Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency;
3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines :
characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control. Special machines :
Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase
Power Electronics and Electric Drives :
Semiconductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and
MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits;
phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and
half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts
of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed
Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions.
Statististical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise : white
noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to
noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSB-SC and SSB.
Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals;
narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW
modulation system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication
receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio
calculation for AM and FM receivers.
Microwaves and Antenna
Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves : ground waves, sky wave,
space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications.
Antenna : Various types, gain, resistance, band-width, beamwidth and
polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas;
microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services : Klystron,
magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated
circuits. Microwave measurements.
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop &
closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems :
time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion,
root-loci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators.
Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of
control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.
Electrical Engineering Materials
Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials : conductivity; free-electrons
and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction; solar
cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization
phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials : behaviour and
application. Photonic materials : refractive index, absorption and emission of
light, optical fibres, lasers and opto-electronic materials.
Microprocessors and microcomputers
8-bit microprocessor : architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing,
I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture : overview,
introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.
Measurement and Instrumentation
Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor,
resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement.
Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency
counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers :
thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of
transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition
Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication : wafer
cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion,
ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon,
silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon di-oxide; metallisation and passivation.
Power Systems : Analysis and Control
Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables;
principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit
quantities; bus admittance and impedance materices; load flow; voltage control
and power factor correction; economic operation; symmeterical components,
analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability :
swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC
transmission; FACTS. Computer control and Automation : Introduction to energy
control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs.
Active power control : Speed control of generators, tie-line control, frequency
control. Economic dispatch.
Power system protection
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of
solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : Introduction;
line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of
DSP to protection.
Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management
Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy
sources. Wind-Energy : Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy
conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy :
Thermal conversion : photo-voltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy
Management : Energy audit; energy economics : discount rate, payback period,
internal rate of return, life cycle costing.
Pulse code modulation (PCM), diferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta
modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase
and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error
detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information
measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.
Satellite Communication, Radar and TV
Satellite Communincation : General overview and technical characteristics,
earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar :
Basic principles, Pulsed systems : CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array
radars. Television Systems : Television systems and standards, Black-and
White-and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.
Fibre Optic System
Multiplexing : Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing.
Optical properties of materials : Refractive index absorption and emission of
light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.