1. Atomic structure
Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity
principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent).
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A D V E R T I S E M E N T
Interpretation of wave
function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave
functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic
compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber
cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in
molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance
and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in
homonuclear molecules: H+2, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-, BeH2
and CO2. Comparision of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order,
bond strength and bond length.
3. SOLID STATE
Forms of solids, law of constancy of
interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic
groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of
rational indices. Bragg's law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing,
radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values.
Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals,
stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The gaseous state
Equation of state for real gases,
intermolecular interactions, liquifictaion of gases and critical phenomena,
Maxwell's distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the
wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical
Thermodynamic systems, states and
processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work
done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes;
calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a
state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy�reversibility and
irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation
between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem
and third law of thermodynamics.
Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble
and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational
partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal
6. Phase equilibria and solutions
Phase equilibria in pure substances;
Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase
equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids�upper and lower
critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and
determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes
and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells;
electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel
cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at
the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential;
electroanalytical techniques�voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic-voltametry,
ion selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical kinetics
Concentration dependence of rate of
reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and
fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse, parallel,
consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate
constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods.
Collisions and transition state theories.
Absorption of light; decay of excited
state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens
and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis
Adsorption from gages and solutions on
solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms�Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms;
determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry
Metal ions in biological systems and their
role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores,
photosynthesis�PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes
12. Coordination chemistry
(a) Electronic configurations;
introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond
theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in
the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.
(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds.
IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with
4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans
effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer
complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
(c) Synthesis and structures of metal
carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d) Complexes with aromatic systems,
synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and
cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition
reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization.
Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of �f� block
Lanthanides and actinides; separation,
oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents
Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2
SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous
solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.