1. Prehistoric cultures in India
2. Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy
and culture. Contacts with other cultures.Problems of decline.
3. Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming
communities outside the Indus region, from t
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he neolithic to early iron
4. Vedic society. The Vedic texts; changefrom Rigvedic to later Vedic
phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organization;
evolutuion of monarchy and varna system.
5. State formation and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas to the Nandas.
Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.
6. The Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his
inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.
7. Post-Mauryan India, BC 200- AD 300. Society: Evolution of jatis. The
Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society.
Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside
world. Religion : Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism;
Jainism; Culture and art.
8. The Guptas and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political
organization of empire. Economy and society. Literature and science. Arts.
9. Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and
political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Postition
of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.
10. Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious conditions : importance of temples
and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and
Science. Alberuniís "India". Art and architecture.
11-12. Thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and
consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the "Slave" Rulers. Alauddin Khalji :
Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad
Tughlugs innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.
Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam.
Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.
13. The fifteenth and early 16th Century : major Provinicial dynasties;
Vijaya-nagara Empire. The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur,
Humayun. The Sur empire and administration. The Portuguese.
Montheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti. Growth of
regional literatures. Art and Culture.
14-15. The Mughal Empire , 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative
measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir,
Shahjahan and Aurangzeb : expansion in the Deccan; religious policies.
Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl;
Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture.
Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with
Europe. Social stratification and status of women.
16. Decline of Mughal Empire, 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power
under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite
culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.
17. British expansion : The Carnatic Wars, Conquest of Bengal. Mysore and
its resitance to British expansion: The three Anglo-Maratha Wars. Early
structure of British raj: Regulating and Pitts India Acts.
18. Economic Impact of the British Raj : Drain of Wealth (Tribute); land
revenue settlements (zamindari, ryotwari, mahalwari); Deindustrialisation;
Railways and commercialisation of agriculture; Growth of landless labor.
19. Cultural encounter and social changes: Introduction of western education
and modern ideas. Indian Renaissance, social and religious reform movements;
growth of Indian middle class; The press and its impact: rise of modern
literature in Indian languages. Social reforms measures before 1857.
20. Resistance to British rule : Early uprisings; The 1857 Revolt- causes,
nature, course and consequences.
21. Indian Freedom struggle-the first phase: Growth of national
consciousness; Formation of Associations; Establishment of the Indian
National Congress and its Moderate phase;- Economic Nationalism; Swadeshi
Movement; The growth of "Extremism" and the 1907 split in Congress; The Act
of 1909 - the policy of Divide and Rule; Congress-League Pact of 1916.
22. Gandhi and his thought; Gandhian techniques of mass mobilisation-
Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India
Movement; Other strands in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, the Left,
Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.
23. Separatist Trends in Indian nationalist politics- the Muslim League and
the Hindu Mahasabha; The post -1945 developments; Partition and
24. India independent to 1964. A parliamentary, secular, democratic
(republic the 1950 Constitution). Jawaharlal Nehrus vision of a developed,
socialist society. Planning and state-controlled industrialization. Agrarian
reforms. Foreign policy of Non-alignment. Border conflict with China and
History Syllabus for Main Examination
1. Sources and approaches to study of early Indian history.
2. Early pastoral and agricultural communities. The archaeological evidence.
3. The Indus Civilization: its origins, nature and decline.
4. Patterns of settlement, economy, social organization and religion in
India (c. 2000 to 500 B.C.) : archaeological perspectives.
5. Evolution of north Indian society and culture: evidence of Vedic texts
(Samhitas to Sutras).
6. Teachings of Mahavira and Buddha. Contemporary society. Early phase of
state formation and urbanization.
7. Rise of Magadha; the Mauryan empire. Ashokas inscriptions; his dhamma.
Nature of the Mauryan state.
8-9 Post-Mauryan period in northern and peninsular India: Political and
administrative history,. Society, economy, culture and religion. Tamilaham
and its society: the Sangam texts.
10-11 India in the Gupta and post-Gupta period (to c. 750) : Political
histroy of northern and peninsular India; Samanta system and changes in
political structure; economy; social structure; culture; religion.
12. Themes in early Indian cultural history: languages and texts; major
stages in the evolution of art and architecture; major philosphical thinkers
and schools; ideas in science and mathematics.
13. India, 750-1200 : Polity, society and economy. Major dynasties and
political structurs in North India. Agrarian structures. " Indian
feudalism". Rise of Rajputs. The Imperial Cholas and their contemporaries in
Peninsular India. Villagle communities in the South. Conditions fof women.
Commerce mercantile groups and guilds; towns. Problem of coinage. Arab
conquest of Sind; the Ghaznavide empire.
14. India, 750-1200: Culture, Literature, Kalhana, historian. Styles of
temple architecture; sculpture. Religious thought and institutions:
Sankaracharyas vedanta. Ramanuja. Growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival
in India. Sufism. Indian science. Alberuni and his study of Indian science
15. The 13th Century. The Ghorian invasions. Factors behind Ghorian success.
Economic, social and cultural consequences. Foundation of Delhi Sultanate.
The "slave" Dynasty. IItutmish; Balban. "The Khalji Revolution". Early
16. The 14th Century. Alauddin Khaljis conquests, agrarian and economic
measures. Muhammad Tughluqs major "projects". Firuz Tughluqs concessions
and public works. Decline of the Sultante. Foreing contacts: Ibn Battuta.
17. Economy societyand culture in the 13th and 14th centureis. Caste and
slavery under sultanate. Tehnological changes. Sultanate architecture.
[persian literature: Amir Khusrau, Historiography; Ziya Barani. Evolution of
a composite culture. Sufism in North India. Lingayats. Bhakti schools in the
18. The 15th and early16th Century (Political History). Rise of Provincial
Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids. The
Vijayanagra Empire. Lodis. Mughal Empire, First phase : Babur, Humayun. The
Sur Empire : Sher Shahs administration. The Portuguese colonial enterprise.
19. The 15th and early 16th Century (society, economy and culture). Regional
cultures and literatures. provincial architectural styles. Society, culture,
literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Monotheistic movements: Kabir and Guru Nank. Bhakti Movements: Chaitanya.
Sufism in its pantheistic phase.
20. Akbar: His conquests and consolidation of empire. Establishment of jagir
and mansab systems. His Rajput policy. Evolution of religious and social
outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy. Abul Fazl, thinker and
historian. Court patronage of art and technology.
21. Mughal empire in the 17th Century. Major policies (administrative and
religious) of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. The Empire and the
Zamindars. Nature of the Mughal state. Late 17th Century crisis: Revolts.
The Ahom kingdom, Shivaji and the early maratha kingdom.
22. Economy and society, 16th and 17th Centuries. Population. Agricultural
and craft production. Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and
French companies- a "trade revolution". Indian mercantile classes. Banking,
insurance and credit systems. Conditions of peasants, famines. Condition of
23. Culture during Mughal Empire. Persian literature (including historical
works). Hindi and relgious literatures. Mughal architecture. Mughal
painting. Provincial schools of architecture and painting. Classical music.
Science and technology. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Mystic eclecticism :
Dara Shukoh. Vaishnav Bhakti. Mahrasthra Dharma. Evolution of the Sikh
24. First half of 18th Century: Factors behind decline of the Mughal Empire.
The regional principalities (Nizams Deccan, Bengal, Awadh). Rise of Maratha
ascendancy under the Peshwas. The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
Emergency of Afghan Power. Panipat, 1761. Internal weakness, political
cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.
1. Establishment of British rule in India: Factors behind British success
against Indian powers-Mysore, Maratha Con federacy and the Punjab as major
powers in resistance; Policy of subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse.
2. Colonial Economy : Tribute system. Drain of wealth and
"deindustrialisation", Fiscal pressures and revenue settlements (Zamindari,
Ryotwari and Mahalwari settlements); Structure of the British raj up to 1857
(including the Acts of 1773 and 1784 and administrative organization).
3. Resistance to colonia rule : Early uprisings; Causes, nature and impact
of the Revolt of 1857; Reorganisation of the Raj, 1858 and after.
4. Socio-cultural impact of colonial rule: Official social reform measures
(1828-57); Orientalist-Anglicist controversy; coming of English education
and the press; Christian missionary activities;Bengal Renaissance; Social
and religious reform movements in Bengal and other areas; Women as focus of
5. Economy 1858-1914: Railways; Commercialisation of Indian agriculture;
Growth of landless labourers and rural indebtedness; Famines; India as
market for British industry; Customs removal, exchange and countervailing
excise; Limited growth of modern industry.
6. Early Indian Nationalism: Social background; Formation of national
associations; Peasant and tribal uprising during the early nationalist era;
Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Moderate phase of the
Congress; Growth of Extremism; The Indian Council Act of 1909; Home Rule
Movement; The Government of India Act of 1919.
7. Inter-War economy of India: Industries and problem of Protection;
Agricultural distress; the Great Depression; Ottawa agreements and
Discriminatory Protection; the growth of trade unions; The Kisan Movement;
The economic programme of the Congress Karachi resolution, 1931.
8. Nationalism under Gandhis leadership: Gandhis career, thought and
methods of mass mobilisation; Rowlatt Satyagraha, Khilafat- Non Cooperation
Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, 1940 Satyagraha and Quit India
Movement; State Peoples Movement.
9. Other strands of the National Movement:
a) Revolutionary movements since 1905; (b) Constitutional politics;
Swarajists, Liberals, Responsive Cooperation; (c) Ideas of Jawharlal Nehru,
(d) The Left (Socialists and Communists); (e) Subhas Chandra Bose and the
Indian National Army; (f) Communal strands: Muslim League and Hindu
Mahasabha; (g) Women in the National Movement.
10. Literary and cultural lmovements: Tagore, Premchand, Subramanyam
Bharati, Iqbal as examples only; New trends in art; Film industry; Writers
Organisations and Theatre Associations.
11. Towards Freedom: The Act of 1935; Congress Ministries, 1937-1939; The
Pakistan Movement; Post-1945 upsurge (RIN Mutiny, Telangana uprising etc.,);
Consititutional negotiations and the Transfer of Power, 15 August 1947.
12. First phase of Independence (1947-64): Facing the consequences of
Partition; Gandhijis murder; economic dislocation; Integration of States;
The democratic constitution, 1950; Agrarian reforms; Building an industrial
welfare state; Planning and industrialisation; Foreign policy of
Non-alignment; Relations with neighbours.
13. Enlightenment and Modern ideas
#1. Renaissance Background
#2. Major Ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
#3. Spread of Enlightenment outside Europe
#4. Rise of socialist ideas (to Marx)
14. Origins of Modern Politics
#1. European States System
#2. American Revolution and the Constitution.
#3. French revolution and after math, 1789-1815.
#4. British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free
#1. English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
#2. Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
#3. Socialist Industrialization: Soviet and Chinese.
16. Nation-State System
#1. Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
#2. Nationalism : state-building in Germany and Italy
#3. Disintegration of Empires through the emergence of nationalities.
17. Imperialism and Colonialism
#1. Colonial System (Exploitation of New World, Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,
Tribute from Asian Conquests)
#2. Types of Empire: of settlement and non-settlement: Latin America, South
Africa, Indonesia, Australia.
#3. Imperialism and Free Trade: The New Imperialism
18. Revolution and Counter-Revolution
#1. 19th Century European revolutions
#2. The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
#3. Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
#4. The Chinese Revolution of 1949
19. World Wars
#1. 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal Implications
#2. World War I : Causes and Consequences
#3. World War II : Political Consequence
20. Cold War
#1. Emergence of Two Blocs
#2. Integration of West Europe and US Strategy; Communist East Europe
#3. Emergence of Third World and Non-Alignment
4. UN and Dispute Resolution
21. Colonial Liberation
#1. Latin America-Bolivar
#2. Arab World-Egypt
#3. Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
#4. South-East Asia-Vietnam
22. Decolonization and Underdevelopment
#1. Decolonization: Break up of colonial Empires: British, French, Duth
#2. Factors constraining Development : Latin America, Africa
23. Unification of Europe
#1. Post War Foundations : NATO and European Community
#2. Consolidation and Expansion of European Community/European Union.
24. Soviety Disintegration and the Unipolar World
#1. Factors in the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union,
#2. Political Changes in East Europe 1989-1992
#3. End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World