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Home » IAS Sample Papers » Psychology Sample Papers » IAS Prelims Philosophy

IAS Prelims Philosophy

A D V E R T I S E M E N T
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1. Consider the following statements:
1. 'P and Q' is either true of false
2. 'P therefore Q' is either true of false
3. 'P and R' is either valid or invalid
4. 'P therefore Q' is either valid or
invalid
Of these statements
a. 1 and 2 are correct
b. 2 and 3 are correct
c. 3 and 4 are correct
d. 1 and 4 are correct
2. Which of the following are true in respect
of the logical validity of an argument?
1. True premises and false conclusion.
2. True premises and true conclusion.
3. False premises and false conclusion.
4. False premises and true conclusion.
Select the correct answer from the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. 1 and 2
b. 1,2 and 3
c. 1,3 and 4
d. 2,3 and 4
3. Which of the following statements are
true?
1. A valid argument must be sound.
2. A sound argument must be valid.
3. A sound argument may have false
conclusion.
4. The premises and conclusion of a
sound argument must be true
Select the correct answer from the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. 2 and 3
b. 3 and 1
c. 2 and 4
d. 1 and 4
4. Which one of the following pairs of
relations of the square of opposition holds
when A and E type of propositions are
interpreted non-existentially?
a. Contrariety and contradiction
b. Sub contrariety and contradiction
c. Contradiction and sub alternation
d. Sub contrariety and sub alternation
5. Which one of the following Venn
diagrams correctly symbolizes the
following proposition?
P = Philosophers
R = Good rulers
.
6. Which one of the following is the contra
positive of "Some S is not P"?
a. Some non-P is non-S
b. Some non-P is not non-S
c. Some non-S is non-P
d. Some non-P is non-S
7. If a proposition describes the relationship
of 'being father of' then which properties
does that relation possess?
a. Non-symmetrical and non-transitive
b. Symmetrical and reflexive
c. Non-symmetrical and non reflexive
d. Asymmetrical and intransitive
8. Which of the following propositions can
be validly inferred from a universal
proposition?
1. Particular affirmative.
2. Particular negative.
3. Denial of particular affirmative.
4. Denial of particular negative.
Select the correct answer from the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 3 and 4
9. In the fourth figure, if the major premise is
affirmative, the minor premise must be
a. Negative
b. Universal
c. Affirmative
d. Particular
10. Which one of the following is a valid
mood of a categorical syllogism in the
third figure?
a. AAA
b. IIO
c. E A O
d. I O A
11. Consider the following argument:
'All spiritual love is real love, all physical
love is not spiritual love, therefore, no
physical love is real love'
The argument commits the
a. Fallacy of undistributed middle term
b. Fallacy of illicit minor term
c. Fallacy of illicit major term
d. Existential fallacy
12. In which of the following figures a
categorical syllogism in the mood IAI will
be valid?
a. Figures I and II
b. Figures II and III
c. Figures III and IV
d. Figures II and IV
13. If one constructs a categorical syllogism
with particular major and a negative minor
and derives a particular negative
conclusion, which one of the following
general rules of syllogism will be violated?
a. If one of the premises is negative
then the conclusion must be negative
and vice versa.
b. If one of the premises is particular,
then the conclusion must be
particular, but not vice versa.
c. Both the premises of a categorical
syllogism cannot be negative.
d. If a term is not distributed in the
premises, then it cannot be
distributed in the conclusion
14. Given below are six statements. Which of
the statements are related as premises and
conclusion of a valid syllogism?
A. No positivist is a theist.
B. All theists are philosophers.
C. Some scientists are theists.
D. All positivists are philosophers.
E. Some scientists are not positivists.
F. Some philosophers are not scientists
Select the correct answer from the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. A B D
b. D E F
c. A C E
d. B C E
15. Which one of the following arguments is
invalid?
a. Some reformers are fanatics, so some
idealists are fanatics, since all
reformers are idealists
b. No gases are argon compounds, since
all argon compounds are metals, and
some metals are not gases
c. Some neurotics are not parasites, but
all criminals are parasites, so some
neurotics are not criminals
d. No wealthy men are labour leaders,
for no wealthy men are true liberals,
and all labour leaders are true liberals
16. Which one of the following Venn
diagrams correctly symbolizes the
argument: "All philosophers are good
thinkers; some poets are philosophers,
therefore some poets are good thinkers."
(Scheme of abbreviations:
P: The class of philosophers,
T: The class of good thinkers,
E: The class of poets)
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17. A A A cannot be a valid mood in the
second figure because it would involve the
fallacy of
a. Illicit Minor
b. Illicit Major
c. Undistributed Middle
d. Two particular premises
18. Which of the following are NOT truth
functional statements?
1. Alfred thinks that logic is difficult.
2. It is not the case that logic is difficult.
3. Possibly logic is difficult.
4. Logic is difficult,
Select the correct answer from the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 2 and 4
19. Consider the argument:
'He knows where the shoe pinches, so he
must have worn the shoes.'
1. All who know where the shoe pinches
must have shoe worn the shoe.
2. All who have worn the shoe know
where the shoe pinches.
3. Some who know where the shoe
pinches must have worn the shoe.
4. Those who have never worn the shoe
cannot know where the shoe pinches.
Of these statements
a. 1 and 4 are correct
b. 2 and 4 are correct
c. 3 and 2 are correct
d. 1 and 3 are correct
20. Which one of the following is the correct
symbolization of 'Not all juniors are
pretty'?
a. (x) (Fx ⊃ ~ Gx)
b. ~ (∃x) (Fx.~ Gx)
c. ~(x) (Fx ⊃ Gx)
d. (∃x) (~ Fx. Gx)
21. If A, B and C are true statements, and X,Y,
Z are false statements, which one of the
following is true?
a. (A. B) ∨ (X.Y)
b. ~ (B∨X). ~ (Y∨Z)
c. ~B∨X
d. ~[(~B∨A)∨(~A∨B)]
22. Which one of the following is an example
of contradiction?
a. (x) (φx ⊃ ψx). (x) (φx ⊃ ~ ψx)
b. (∃x) (φx.ψx). (∃x) (φx.~ψx)
c. (x) (φx ⊃ ~ψx). (∃x) (φx.ψx)
d. (x) (φx ⊃ ~ψx).(∃x) (φx.~ψx)
23. Match List I with List II and select the
correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
List I
A. You'll succeed if you try
B. You'll succeed unless you don't try
C. You will not succeed unless you try
D. You will succeed only if you'll try
List II
1. Either you don't try or you'll succeed
2. Either you try or you'll not succeed
3. If you succeed, then you'll try.
4. If you try, you'll succeed
A B C D
a. 4 1 3 2
b. 4 1 2 3
c. 1 4 2 3
d. 1 4 3 2
24. Which one of the following arguments is
valid truth functionally?
a. If there is evil, God does not exist;
therefore God does not exist.
b. If there is no. evil, then God exists;
therefore God exists.
c. Either there is no evil of God does
not exist; therefore God exists
d. If is not the case that if there is evil
then God does not exist; therefore
there is evil.
25. Which one of the following is entailed by
'p'?
a. (p.q) ∨ (~p.q)
b. (~p∨p). (q ⊃ ~q)
c. (p ⊃ q) ∨ (q ⊃ p)
d. P ⊃ (p ⊃ q)
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26. Which one of the following formulae
determines the number of rows in any
truth-table?
a. 2n where 'n' is the number of
propositional variables in the truth
functional expression.
b. n2 where 'n' is the number of
propositional variables in the truth
functional expression.
c. n2 –1 where 'n' is the number of
propositional variables in the truth
functional expression.
d. 2 multiplied by 'n', where 'n' is the
number of propositional variables in
the truth-functional expression.
27. Which one of the following truth values
are assigned to show that 'P ≡ [P ⊃ Q]' is
NOT tautologies?
a. P is true and Q is false
b. Both P and Q are true
c. Both P and Q are false
d. P is false and Q is true
28. Given the following proof of validity
1. M ⊃ ~N
2. ~M ⊃ (L ⊃ ~ N)
3. (~ I ∨ ~L) ⊃ ~ ~ N
4. ~I/∴~L
5. ~I ∨~L
6. ~ ~N
7. ~M
8. L ⊃ ~ N
9. ~L
29. Which one of the following is implied by
the premises [(P ⊃ Q).(R ⊃ S)] and ~
P∨~R?
a. ~ Q∨ ~S
b. Q ∨ S
c. Q ⊃ S
d. None of the above
30. Match List I with List II and select the
correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
List I (Moral point of view)
A. Kingdom of ends
B. Descriptivism
C. Utilitarianism
D. Non-cognitivism
List II (Philosophers)
1. Philippa Foot
2. R.M Hare
3. Kant
4. PH. Nowellsmith
Codes:
A B C D
a. 1 3 2 4
b. 3 1 4 2
c. 3 1 2 4
d. 1 3 4 2
31. Consider the following statements:
Deontological theory
1. Means that, that which works is
morally good.
2. Grounds morality in the concert of
duty
3. Is based on ontology.
4. Rejects the notion of divine command.
Of these statements
a. 1 and 2 are correct
b. 1 and 3 are correct
c. 2 and 4 are correct
d. 3 and 4 are correct
32. Match List I with List II and select the
correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
List I
A. In order to get pleasure one must forget
pleasure.
B. Good is defined in terms of happiness.
C. To know that an action has a natural
property is not to know its moral value.
D. If each person's happiness is good for
him, universal happiness is good for
all.
List II
1. Naturalistic fallacy
2. Fallacy of composition
3. Paradox of hedonism
4. Open question argument
Codes:
A B C D
a. 1 3 4 2
b. 3 1 2 4
c. 1 3 2 4
d. 3 1 4 2
33. Which one of the following is NOT a
correct statement?
a. Utilitarianism is a kind of
consequentialism
b. Utilitarianism has a psychological
basis
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c. Utilitarianism holds that good is a
value in itself
d. Utilitarianism asserts that moral
judgments can be justified.
34. One of the unique features of Bent ham's
utilitarianism lies in his
a. Distinction between higher and lower
pleasures
b. Calculus of pleasures
c. Altruistic hedonism
d. Intuitionist explanation of goodness
35. Which one of the following statements is
NOT associated with Bent ham's
Utilitarianism?
a. Nature has placed man under the
empire of pleasure and pain. His
object is to seek pleasure and shun
pain.
b. Weigh pleasures and weigh pains,
and as the balance stands, will stand
the question of right and wrong.
c. Quantity of pleasure being equal,
pushpin is as good as poetry.
d. The moral standard is the greatest
pleasure of the individual, and not
the 'greatest pleasure of the greatest
number'
36. Which one of the following statements
elucidates the principle of Utilitarianism?
a. To desire a thing except in
proportion as the idea of it is pleasant
is a physical and metaphysical
impossibility.
b. The internal sanction of conscience
is a feeling for the happiness of
mankind.
c. The 'sense of dignity' in man is
responsible for preferring noble
pleasures to physical pleasures.
d. It is better to be a human being
dissatisfied than a pig satisfied;
better to be a Socrates dissatisfied
than a fool satisfied.
37. Which one of the following statements is
NOT associated with Kantian ethics?
a. Reason is the regulative principle in
the life of a person.
b. The moral law is made for the sake
of man and not man for the sake of
law.
c. The complete good is virtue and
happiness in harmony with each
other.
d. Prudence has nothing to do with
virtue.
38. A descriptivist account of moral judgments
a. Must deny that moral judgments are
ever prescriptive
b. Must hold that moral judgments are
persuasive in nature.
c. Must hold that moral judgments are
emotive in nature.
d. Must deny that moral judgments can
never be true or false.
39. If our actions are fully predictable then
there can be no freedom for human beings.
According to Mill the above statements is
a. True
b. True only in ethical context
c. True only in non-ethical context
d. False
40. In Kant's view imperfect duties are
imperfect because
a. Their maxims cannot be willed so as
to become universal law of nature
b. They are only self-regarding
c. They can be overridden by perfect
duties
d. They are not determinate
41. The meaning of a categorical imperative,
as defined by Kant, can be elucidated as
a. You must do X because X is good in
itself
b. Yours truly, must do X because X is
good for attaining happiness
c. You must do X because there is
nothing better than X
d. You must do X because the divine
will so commands
42. Consider the following statements:
'I ought' presupposes 'I can' is
1. A principle of ethics.
2. A logical principle.
3. Apolitical principle.
4. A psychological law.
Of these statements
a. 1 and 3 are correct
b. 1 and 2 are correct
c. 2 and 3 are correct
d. 3 and 4 are correct
6 of 13
43. The Prescriptive theory of ethics holds that
the function of moral judgments is
a. To persuade people to act in right
way
b. To tell people what ought to be done
c. To make people aware of the
distinction between right and wrong
d. To express the speaker's attitude
44. Emotivism is compatible with the view
that moral judgments are
a. Objectively valid
b. Universal in character
c. Incapable of proof
d. Verifiable only in terms of their
consequences
45. Bhagavadgita's doctrine of niskama karma
means
a. Doing actions considering one self as
an instrument of God
b. Doing actions without attachment
c. Doing actions for 'Lokasamgraha'
d. Doing action for attaining moksa

46. Match List I with List II and select the

correct answer using the codes given

below the lists :

List I (Concepts)

A. Asteya

B. Avyayam padam

C. Aparigraha

D. Brahmacarya

List II (Meanings)

1. Abstention from sensuality

2. Non-stealing

3. The imperishable state

4. Non-possession

Codes:

A B C D

a. 2 3 4 1

b. 2 3 1 4

c. 3 2 4 1

d. 3 2 1 4

47. Which one of the following features of

Jaina ethics does NOT reflect its true

position?

a. Jainism enjoins the observance of

five vows

b. Jainism enjoins three kinds of

restraint

c. Jainism enjoins ten kinds of Vrata

d. Jainsim regards God-realisation as

the ultimate ideal of human life

48. The cause of bondage according to the

Jainism is

a. Indulgence in sensual pleasure

b. Immoral acts

c. Attachment to worldly objects

d. Influx of matter into the soul

49. Which one of following is true of

Buddhism?

a. Nirvana can be achieved only in this

life

b. Nirvana can be achieved only in the

life after death

c. Nirvana can be achieved both in this

life and life after death

d. Nirvana can be achieved be the

grace of the Tathagata

50. Match List I with List II and select the

correct answer using the codes given

below the lists:

List I

A. Vedana

B. Upadana

C. Sadayatana

D. Vijn%ana

List II

1. Clinging to enjoyment

2. Six-sense organs including mind

3. Initial consciousness of the embryo

4. Sense-experience

Codes:

A B C D

a. 1 4 2 3

b. 4 1 3 2

c. 4 1 2 3

d. 1 4 3 2

51. 'Prat ityasamutpada is associated with

a. Duhkha

b. Duhkha –samudaya

c. Duhkha-Nirodha

d. Duhkha-Nirodha-Marg

52. 'Samyak smrti' or 'Right remembrance'

means

a. Remembering the words of Buddhist

saints

b. Remembering the real meaning of

Buddhist scriptures

c. Remembering the real nature of mind

and body

d. Remembering the real nature of self

53. Which of the following statements are

associated with Gandhiji's concept of

truth?

1. truth is an ontological category.

2. truth is an ethical category.

3. truth is only a property of statements

Select the correct answer from the codes

given below:

Codes:

a. 1,2 and 3

b. 1 and 2

c. 2 and 3

d. 1 and 3

54. Which one of the following statements

does NOT truly reflect Gandhiji's

philosophy of life?

a. Hate the sin and not the sinner

b. Non-violence is an active moral fight

against wickedness

c. Violence is not always wrong

d. Punishment should always be

retributive

55. Assertion (A): Spinoza believed that there

is only one substance.

Reason (R): Substance, according to

Spinoza, is that which exists in itself and is

conceived by itself it self independent of

any- thing else.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

56. Assertion (A): Berkeley believed that

there is God.

Reason (R): Berkeley believed that things

of the world would continue to exist

because God would perceive them even if

no human being would be there to

perceive.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

57. Assertion (A): Maya according to

Advaita vedanta , is indes crib able.

Reason (R): Maya cannot be known by

any valid means.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

58. Assertion (A): Ramanuja adopted a kind

of realistic epistemology.

Reason (R): He says that the object of

knowledge as well as that of illusion is

real.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

59. Assertion (A): According to Advaita

Vedanta to know Brahman is to be

Brahman.

Reason (R): There is a relation of nondifference

between Atman and Brahman.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

60. Assertion (A): Akhyativada holds that

error is due to non-discrimination between

the two cognitions of separate objects.

Reason (R): Error is due to a wrong

synthesis of the presented and the

represented objects.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the

correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true but R is not a

correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is false

 61. Assertion (A): Descartes believed that
persons are essentially nonphysical.
Reason (R): According to Descartes the
person is composed of two distinct
substances, mind and matter, the forever
being essential to persons while the later is
contingent.
8 of 13
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
62. Assertion (A): A singular proposition is
particular.
Reason (R): The subject term of a
singular proposition denotes a particular
individual.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
63. Assertion (A): According to Mill
intellectual pleasure is superior to pleasure
of senses.
Reason (R): Intellectual pleasure is
preferred by those who are capable of both
intellectual and sensuous pleasures and
have a sense of dignity.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
64. Assertion (A): Moral judgments are
different from factual judgments according
to the non-descriptivist.
Reason (R): Moral judgments express the
speakers approval and disapproval.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
65. Assertion (A): According to emotivism
disagreements about ethical matters may
not be definitively resolvable.
Reason (R): Ethical disagreements
primarily involve disagreement in
attitudes.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
66. Assertion (A): According to Jainism, only
elimination of matter from the soul will
lead to liberation.
Reason (R): Bondage of the soul is its
association with matter.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
67. Assertion (A): The eight-fold path in
Buddhism teaches the practice of Yoga.
Reason (R): The eight-fold path ii1
Buddhism is amoral way of life.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the
correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true but R is not a
correct explanation of A
c. A is true but R is false
d. A is false but R is false
68. Match List-I with List-It d select the
correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
List I (Philosophers)
A. Locke
B. Berkeley
C. Descartes
D. Aristotle
List II (Books)
1. DEANIMA
2. A Discourse on Method
3. A New Theory of Vision
4. Essay Concerning Human
Understanding
A B C D
a. 3 4 2 1
b. 4 3 2 1
c. 4 3 1 2
d. 3 4 1 2
69. According to which school of Indian
metaphysics, the atoms of space, time,
ether, mind, earth, water, fire and air are
perfect, eternal and inorganic?
a. Sankhya
b. Nyaya −Vaisesika
c. Vedanta
d. Buddhism
9 of 13
70. Which one of the following statements is
NOT included in Aristotle's concept of
substance?
a. All definitions of things involve a
reference to substance
b. Knowledge of substance is prior to
the knowledge of any particular
object
c. Substance is that which remains the
same through change
d. Only God is the true substance
71. Which one of the following statements
adequately sums up Descartes'
philosophy?
a. Substance is that which remains the
same through
b. The world is made of two radically
different kinds of substance, mind
and matter
c. Matter alone is real and mind is only
an illusion
d. Mind creates matter
72. Which one of the following is true of
Lock's view of substance?
a. Substance is the sum of qualities
b. Substance is the. substratum of
qualities
c. Substance is the sum of ideas
d. Substance is the logical construction
of sense data
73. Which one of the following arguments is
advanced by Locke for the rejection of
innate ideas?
a. If there were innate ideas, then all
human beings would be identical
b. If there were innate ideas then we
should find them expressed in infants
and untutored savages
c. If there were innate ideas then there
must be a God who generates them
d. If there were innate ideas than human
beings should be eternal
74. Which one of the following is true of
Berkeley?
a. There is a material substratum
underlying qualities
b. There is no material substratum
underlying qualities
c. There is no material substratum
underlying qualities but there is a
material world independent of ideas
d. Primary qualities alone are
objectively real and matter is the
same as these primary qualities
75. Who among the following is associated
with the view that the idea of material
substance is an abstract idea, and that
given the existence of God, we can
account for all the facts of the world?
a. Aristotle
b. Thomas Aquinas
c. Spinoza
d. Berkeley

76. Which one of the following has NOT been
treated as a category in Vaisesila
philosophy?
a. Substance
b. Attributes
c. Karma
d. Artha
77. Which one of the following theses
according to Vaisesika entails that mind
(Manas) can perceive things only one at a
time?
a. The order of things being present in
succession
b. Things being different in nature
c. The mind being atomic in nature
d. The fact that objects cannot come in
contact with the senses all at once
78. According to Buddhism the doctrine of
pudgalanairatmya means
a. The denial of an eternal substance,
spiritual as well as material
b. The affirmation of only an eternal
spiritual substance and denial of the
material
c. The affirmation of the material
substance and denial of the spiritual
d. The affirmation of an ultimate reality
beyond both matter and spirit
79. In Buddhism rejection of substance is
primarily based on the doctrine of
a. Dukhamayata
b. Anatmata
c. Anityata
d. Pratityasamutpada
80. The idea of a perfect being is necessarily
the idea of an existent being, since a being
that lacked existence would not be perfect.
God as a perfect being, there for must
10 of 13
exist. This argument for the existence of
God is
a. Causal argument
b. Moral argument
c. Ontological argument
d. Teleological argument
81. Which one of the following elements
according to Aquinas, is the most
fundamental in the explanation of the
world?
a. Pure form
b. Pure matter
c. Both from and matter
d. The creator's will
82. Creation of the world in time is a
sacrament. It cannot be demonstrated by
reason. It is an inner instinct which God
endows us with. It comes from without as
a result of miracles. This view is held by
a. Thomas Aquinas
b. St. Augustine
c. Descartes
d. Spinoza
83. Which one of the following statements
supports the privation theory of evil in
Augustine's philosophy?
a. Evil has no place in God's creation
b. Evil is the creation of mortal beings
c. Evil is mere denial of good
d. Evil is essential for the elevation of
the value of good
84. According to Spinoza intellectual love of
God is
a. Loving Gad like an intellectual
devotee
b. Realizing rationally that we are
modes of God and that by loving
ourselves we actually love God
c. Having rational faith in God and
avoiding blind faith
d. Proving with arguments the modes
and attributes of His all-loving
character.
85. According to Descartes, the idea of God is
a. Adventitious
b. Fictitious.
c. Demonstrative
d. Innate
86. According to Nyaya-vaisesika
consciousness is
a. The nature of the individual self
b. A permanent quality of the
individual self
c. An impermanent quality of the
individual self
d. A function of the individual self
87. Which one of the following describes
Samkara's concept of Brahman?
a. Brahman is conditioned by Maya
b. Creatorship of the world is the
essence of Brahman
c. Brahman is satyam, jnanam and
anantam
d. As creator of the world and
individual souls, Brahman man is not
determinate
88. Which one of the following features
according to Ramanuja makes reality
qualified?
a. Heterogeneous distinctions
b. Homogeneous distinctions
c. Internal distinctions
d. Unity in diversity
89. Match List-I with List-II and select the
correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
List I (Philosophers)
A. Locke
B. Vaibhasikas
C. Berkeley
D. Samkara
List II (Theories)
1. Subjective Idealism
2. Objective Idealism
3. Epistemological dualism
4. Naive Realism
Codes:
A B C D
a. 4 3 1 2
b. 3 4 2 1
c. 3 4 1 2
d. 4 3 2 1
90. Regarding universals which of the
following views are held by Plato?
1. Universal is a one beyond the many.
2. Universal is a one in many.
3. Universal is a timeless entity.
Select the correct answer using the codes
given below:
Codes:
a. 1 and 3
11 of 13
b. 1 and 2
c. 2 and 3
d. 1,2 and 3

91. Which one of the following theses is the
most fundamental to Berkeley's
worldview?
a. All qualities are ideas and so any
object consisting of qualities is an
idea
b. Qualities of an object do not inhere
in a material substratum
c. A quality cannot exist if it is not
perceived
d. The idea of independent matter is
absurd.
92. Which one of the following is NOT
Samanya?
a. Manhood (Manusyatva)
b. Cowness (gotva)
c. Skyness (Akasatva)
d. Jarness (Ghatatva)
93. Samanya, in the Vaisesika system stands
for
a. The genus
b. the species
c. class concept or universal
d. An idea in the mind
94. Apoha vada in Buddhism leads to the
development of
a. Conceptualism
b. Rea1ism
c. Pragmatism
d. Nominalism
95. The validity and invalidity of knowledge
are due to extraneous conditions.' This
view is maintained by
a. Nyaya
b. Samkhya
c. Mimamsa
d. Vedanta
96. Carvakas did NOT accept anumana as
pramana because
a. The object of anumana cannot be
verified through perception
b. We cannot establish the necessary
relation between hetu and sadhya
c. Anumana generally is used for
proving unreal things such as god
and soul
d. Anumana is indistinguishable from
tarka
97. According to Nyăya-Vaiesika the number
'one' is directly perceived, but other
numbers are
a. Inferred
b. Indirectly perceived
c. Conceived
d. Known by comparison
98. According to the Naiyayikas the
knowledge resulting from upamanapramana
is that of
a. Similarity
b. The relation between the name and its
object
c. The relation between a universal type
and its particular instance
d. A new object
99. According to Nyaya, 'Ice looks cold' is an
example of
a. Samanyalaksana
b. Jnanalaksana
c. Yogajalaksana
d. Laukika sannikarsa
100. According to Nyaya-vaisesika , the non
existence of a jar on the. floor is perceived
by an eye because
a. The eye is in contact with the floor,
which is qualified by the floor ness
b. The eye is in contact with the floor,
which is qualified by the non-existence
of the jar
c. There is no jar qualified by floor ness
d. There is only floor not qualified by
jarness
101. Consider the following inference:
'Sky-flower' is fragrant as it has got
flower ness in it.'
This inference commits the fallacy of
a. Anaikantika
b. Satpratipaksa
c. Badhita
d. Asrayasiddhi
102. According to the Naiyayikas prama is
a. Manifestation of objects
b. Apprehension which agrees with the
real character of the object
apprehended.
c. Revelatory of reality
d. Knowledge of an object with qualities
which exist in the object
103. Which one of the following alternatives is
accepted by Buddhism?
12 of 13
a. Svatah-pramanya paratah-apramanya
b. Svatah-pramanya svatah-apramanya
c. Paratah-pramanya svatah-apramanya
d. Paratah-pramanya paratah-apramanya
104. According to Advaita-Vednta which one
of the following represents the correct
sequence for the study of Vedanta?
a. Nityanitya-vastu-viveka, mumuksutva,
ihamutrartha-bhogaviraga,
samadamadi-sadhana-sampat
b. Ihamutrartha-bhogaviraga,
mumuksutva, nityanitya-vastu-viveka,
samadamadi-sadhana-sampat
c. Nityanitya-vastu-viveka,
ihamutrarthabhogaviraga,
samadamadi-sadhana-sampat,
mumuksutva
d. Samamadi-sadhana-sampat,
ihamutrarthabhogaviraga, nityanityavastu-
viveka, mumuksutva
105. The knowledge of the ultimate reality
according to Vedanta is a case of
a. nirvikalpaka pratyaksa
b. savikalpaka pratyaksa
c. anumiti
d. upamiti 

106. Which one of the following theses is

implied by the correspondence theory of

truth?

a. A statement and a fact must be

comparable

b. Truth of historical statements cannot

be determined

c. Statements about the future cannot be

true

d. Negative statements cannot be true

107. The view that truth is agreement of

through to reality is maintained by the

a. Correspondence theory of truth

b. Coherence theory of truth

c. Pragmatic theory of truth

d. Self-evidence theory of truth

108. Which one of the following schools

accepts the coherence theory of truth?

a. Idealist

b. Realist

c. Empiricist

d. Representationalist

109. Which of the following statements express

the pragmatic theory of truth?

1. The truth of an idea is not a stagnant

property inherent in it.

2. Truth must exhibit the mark of internal

harmony

3. Truth is man-made

4. Truth is an agreement of our

judgements with facts.

Select the correct answer from the codes

given below:

Codes:

a. 2 and 4

b. 3 and 4

c. 1 and 3

d. 1 and 2

110. Which one of the following pairs is

correct?

a. Naiyayika .... Atmakhyati

b. Buddhism .... Asatkhyati

c. Mimamsa .... Anyathakhyati

d. Advaita vedanta .... Vivekakhyati

111. Which one of the following statements

defined correctly the principle of Anyatha

Khyati?

a. The present object is illusorily

produced

b. The present object is confused with the

data memory

c. The present object appears as

objectively real

d. The present object remains devoid of

any subjective element.

112. In the erroneous cognition of silver in

place of a shell we cognise something

shining in front of us and we remember

silver. But we fail to distinguish between

the perception and the recollection. This

aspect of erroneous cognition was

highlighted in the theory of error by

a. Bhattamimamsakas

b. Naiyaiksa

c. Prabhakaraminmamsakas

d. Vedantins

113. According to Advaita Vedanta, the status

of the world is

a. real

b. unreal

c. both real and unreal

d. neither real nor unreal

114. Match List I with List II and select the

correct answer using the codes given

below the lists:

List I

(Theses)

A. I am not only lodged in my body as a

pilot in a vessel, but that I am besides

so intimately conjoined, and as it, were

intermixed with it that my mind and

body compose a certain unity.

B. The mind is a kind of theatre, where

several perceptions successively make

their appearance, pass, re-pass, glide

away, and mingly in an infinite variety

of postures and situations.

C. All reality is mind

D. The 'I think' must be capable of

accompanying all my representation.

List II

(Philosophers)

1. Berkeley

2. Descrates

3. Kant

4. Hume

Codes:

A B C D

a. 2 4 3 1

b. 4 2 1 3

c. 2 4 1 3

d. 4 2 3 1

115. Which one of the following views is held

by Descartes?

a. Mind and body are the two substances

which exist independently of each

other

b. God is the only substance and mind

and matter are its attributes

c. Mind is the only substance and matter

is only a fiction

d. Matter is the only substance and mind

is one of its modes of existence

116. Match List I with List II and select the

correct answer using the codes given

below the lists:

List I

(Philosophers)

A. Descartes

B. Spinoza

C. Leibnitz

D. Berkeley

List II

(Theories)

1. Parallelism

2. Interactionism

3. Mentalism

4. Re-established harmony

Codes:

A B C D

a. 1 2 4 3

b. 2 1 4 3

c. 2 1 3 4

d. 1 2 3 4

117. According to Spinoza, substance and

modes are related in such a way that

a. substance is the most basic

b. modes are more basic to substance

c. substance and modes are two

independent things

d. they are mutually dependent

118. Regarding the problem of mind-body

relation which one of the following

solutions on the analogy of two clocks

keeping time together perfectly is a

acceptable to Leibnitz?

a. They are mechanically connected with

each other

b. They are placed in charge of a skilled

workman who regulates them from

moment to moment

c. Good has so synchornized them from

the beginning

d. They are part and parcel of the larger

whole

119. Which one of the following is NOT

included in Leibnitz' principle of identity

of indiscernible?

a. That two things in the universe can be

exactly alike in all respects

b. No two things can be exactly alike in

every respect except numerically

c. No two things are identical since each

possesses something which no other

possesses

d. All things that differ numerically are

spatially separated and have

discernible difference

120. Regarding the relation between matter and

mind which one of the following

statements is supported by Berkeley?

a. Matter is unreal

b. Both matter and mind are unreal

c. Matter is real and mental in nature

d. Matter is real and non-mental in




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